What could threaten NPP owners with underestimating the importance of cybersecurity?

In Financial Times recently the information appeared about the employees of nuclear power plants negligently treat the protection of their virtual data. According to researchers, because of this there were more than fifty dangerous incidents. This information had been got during the work investigations of nuclear power plants from the USA, Ukraine, Germany, France, Canada, Great Britain and Japan.

The poll of officials who are responsible for the safety of nuclear power plant was shown that the physical protection in most cases is at a good level, but among employees practically nobody cares for their virtual protection.

Is it worth defending the nuclear power plant from hacker attacks?

Most of the employees of the nuclear power plants consider that the main thing is a physical safety, and they shouldn’t worry about the rest. Employees of the NPP explain such carelessness with the fact that stations have no Internet access as superfluous. Where is no Internet – there are no hacker attacks. But it is not absolutely so. Anyway, nuclear scientists have access to “World Wide Web”, at least the departments of finance, allocations, etc. The Internet is necessary for them as it helps to save time and resources for the exchange of information, its search and handling. Basic data on the entities are also stored in digital form. The leakage of this data is capable of bringing much harm to stations. There is information that in Ohio there was an overload of safety network on nuclear power plant because one of the workers went on-line, without VPN connection. If you are looking for which type of VPN service to choose, then you can select the appropriate VPN service on the Anta Net website. The information provided there will help to coordinate and choose the service that suits you best.

What is the reason for the weak protection of NPP?

Nuclear scientists hardly ever use the protected VPN, and the management most often has bad awareness on cyber security. For many years people had worked on making the atomic energy safe for the environment and they did it. But in the modern world, the threat of hacker attacks is no less terrible than non-compliance with engineering safety rules.

The majority of systems for management and safety of information were created in the 60th years of past century and from that time changed only a little. It should come as no surprise that in comparison with modern technologies the virtual safety of NPP is extremely unreliable.

What could threaten the nuclear power plant from the side of the network?

The first that threatens the unprotected Internet connection – is malefactors. They can easily find a gap in protection of network; get access to important information and to do much harm to stations. Considering specifics of the object, harm can be not only financial, but also physical. The hacker is capable of interfering with the technologically automated processes and that can lead to an emergency situation. In other words, the hacker attack threatens with radiation poisoning.

The second danger of virtual network insufficient protection is the possibility of virus infection. Even harmless “worm” is capable of stopping the normal work of computer and systems of automation for a long time, not to mention more difficult dangerous virus programs. All nuclear power plants must have good anti-virus protection.

What can nuclear scientists make for cyber security? The complex of the changes directed to the protection of virtual space of the station is necessary. Using of VPN to connection with the Internet will allow being protected from data leakage. Constantly updated anti-virus system will be able to protect the system from harmful programs.

The Types Of Paints You See In 9 building projects out of 10

The modern building project employ dozens of technologies, and nowadays paints play not only an aesthetic, but also protective role. Water-resistant paints represent one of the most widespread paint types for external use. These paints are well suited for the bathrooms, basements and ceilings to deal with high level of humidity. Unlike other types of materials, it lasts long, plus it can be refreshed without much effort and huge expenses.

Since the surface of the wall is porous, covering it with usual paints is quite a risky affair, because the pores accumulate water vapor, which will eventually evaporate, thereby, resulting to peeling and cracking of the material. Water-resistant paints (acrylic) have the ability to penetrate deep into the pores, preventing the surface from peel off from the substrate and don’t crack over time. When applying the paint keeping surface dry is essential to provide decent adhesion and essure sufficient water repellency. Thus, the water-resistant paints are not afraid of water due to a reliable coating, resistant to wet cleaning and allowing repainting without removing the previous layer. By purchasing this finishing material, you need to pay attention to its bacteriological features. With the presence of protective components, the paint can be well suited for painting of floors, walls and ceilings in rooms with high humidity. Some companies, like Britannia, concentrating their efforts on exterior wall coatings, offer fully eco-friendly products that pose no threat to human health. Continue reading “The Types Of Paints You See In 9 building projects out of 10”

Industrial degreasing techniques: etching

Reducing energy costs and improving the ecological purity of the materials remain the most problematic issues of degreasing surfaces. As practice shows, the existing degreasing water compositions at low temperatures (25-30 ° C) do not not provide the high quality of the surface cleaning. Decent results are likely to be achieved only with the use of organic solvents and emulsion formulations, but it negatively affects the environment. The contradiction is removed to a certain extent in the application of thermal degreasing methods, but it is not always a panacea for certain financial reasons. Such options as the use of compositions which do not require subsequent washing (for example, BOC-5) or allow discharging wash water without pre-cleaning can be considered, but hardly possible to resort to.

Etching technology

Scale, rust and other oxides are often removed from the metal surface by etching in solutions of acids, acid salts or alkalis. Cleaning the surface with etching method is reduced to the dissolution of the surface layer of oxides and metal recovery of oxide compounds and the separation of hydrogen generated. Etching products are subjected to pre-purified from mechanical impurities and fat.

Etching in ferrous metals

As etchants for ferrous metals the most commonly used materials are sulfuric, hydrochloric and phosphoric acid with various additives. In acid etching the kinetic curve to reduce the mass of the sample can be divided into three periods: dissolving oxides, the appearance of the anode surface areas, accompanied by the simultaneous dissolution of oxide and metal and dissolution of metal.

Sulfuric acid reacts more actively to iron than with its anhydrous oxides (by etching dissolves no more than 20% of the scale). Getting into the pores and cracks of scale, the acid dissolves the surface layer of the metal and thereby violates its relationship with the scale. Therefore, in the etching sulfuric acid is associated with the formation of a significant amount of sludge hydrogenation steel. The metal surface as a result of etching can have a highly uneven relief. The most frequently used acid concentrations vary from 150 to 200 g/l, the etching process is carried out at 50-80°C.

The hydrochloric acid descaling occurs primarily as a result of dissolution (weight reduction of scale is 50% or more). Consequently, the metal surface after etching in hydrochloric acid is smoother than in sulfuric one: the degree of sludge formation is also reduced. Etching in hydrochloric acid is conducted at temperatures of 20-60°C, optimum acid concentration of 100-150 g/l. The use of hydrochloric acid, however, is less convenient and economical than sulfuric acid. Therefore, etching oftentimes implies using sulfuric acid and mixtures of sulfuric acid with hydrochloric acid or sodium chloride. The presence of the latter reduces the corrosion rate of iron without affecting the dissolution rate of an oxide. An even more effective in this respect is the introduction of the composition of the etching solution of corrosion inhibitors (additives) represented by methenamine, and others.

A way more cost-effective technology, demanding considerable engineering and financial efforts, but paying off in the long run, can be ultrasonic cleaning. Pioneered by the industry innovators like Hilsonic, a far-famed ultrasonic cleaner equipment manufacturer, has recently presented a cost-effectiveness report on projects implemented in 2015, boasting impressive financial feasibility ratings.

The essence of Internet communications from a marketing standpoint

Imagine two huge scales: on one of them all your resources to the project are gathered – people, money, time, state preferences, unique knowledge and patents, etc., everything that helps you to produce goods and services. On the second one – the whole demand for products of this type: the target audience and its size, the financial condition of the target audience, competitive pressures in the market, state regulation of limiting the demand, and so on.

Marketing – is the search for and achievement of balance on these huge scales at any time. No, this is not the canonical definition that can be found in numerous textbooks and books, including those recommended by marketing gurus. This is the picture of the world in which you are doing marketing, so keep it in mind.

One of the most exciting marketing stories in the world – the creation of Ford Mustang by Lee Iacocca team. Ford has been in deep crisis that was aggravated further by extremely unfortunate release of Edsel model, which almost led the company to bankruptcy. And then Lee Iacocca put together a team that has studied the demand, has taken into account the failure of the previous model, analyzed the existing market demand and potential of car buyers and released Ford Mustang – a new model of car, which has become an American legend, variations of which are available across the globe 50 years later.

So, marketing includes:

  • Analysis of demand;
  • Analysis of competitors;
  • Analysis of the possibilities for the production;
  • Formation of the job for production;
  • Testing of the product to potential consumers;
  • Promotion of a product on the market.

All this and much more are the basic components of marketing. Internet marketing can also be used to analyze the demand and competition, product testing (not always, of course), and for its promotion. And in all cases, Internet marketing is an environment for building communications.

Communication with people who have already purchased a product or just going to do it, communications with competitors, experts partners and so on… all the above is communication. That is, the Internet is a tool for the construction of communication with target groups. And this is where internet marketing takes center stage – to build marketing communications over the Internet. And yes – it is not a completely independent area, but a tool for marketing that of course has its own special properties.

‘Internet marketing does not exist’ is the quote seasoned marketers like HTP, digital marketing Manchester agency specialising in promoting a variety of enterprises online in the most sophisticated areas, and they are right: in fact, Internet marketing does not exist by itself, it is only part of the ‘bigger’ marketing concept. Internet marketing is a tool that solves the marketing problems of the company, and nothing more.
Because of the Internet online Marketing as a medium of communication is at times significantly different from the conventional marketing. Customers are more demanding, more prepared and know the product better, are less likely to trust the information obtained through the Internet than information from other media.